what is homoerectus

For example, at the 780 ka Gesher Benot Ya‘aqov site, Israel, the inhabitants gathered and ate 55 different types of fruits, vegetables, seeds, nuts, and tubers, and it appears that they used fire to roast certain plant materials that otherwise would have been inedible; they also consumed amphibians, reptiles, birds, aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates, in addition to the usual large creatures such as elephant and fallow deer. Les Homo erectus furent les premiers représentants de la lignée humaine à avoir quitté l'Afrique. This in turn could imply a shift in female behaviour which made it difficult for males to maintain a harem. One of these trackways, based on the size of the footprints, may have been an entirely male group, which could indicate they were some specialised task group, such as a hunting or foraging party, or a border patrol. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. On trouve les traces de leurs activités, ou leurs restes, en Afrique du Nord, dans la vallée du Jourdain, en Chine et à Java. sapiens. Homo erectus, (Latin: “upright man”) extinct species of the human genus , perhaps an ancestor of modern humans (Homo sapiens). Livestock that grazes on volcanic ash ridden fields typically die of acute intoxication within a few days or weeks. They were taller and their brain was larger than previous hominin species such as Australopithecus sp. Replica of lower jaws of Homo erectus from Tautavel, France. However, the squamous part of occipital bone, particularly the internal occipital crest, at the rear of the skull is notably thicker than that of modern humans, likely a basal (ancestral) trait. [90] Dating to 1.75 Mya, it is the oldest claimed evidence of architecture. erectus. [112] However, an apparent lack of reported wearing is likely due to a lack of use-wear studies, and only a few sites yield an exorbitant sum of hand axes likely due to gradual accumulation over generations instead of mass production. This would have increased brain size indirectly while maintaining the same caloric requirements of ancestor species. [74] Alternatively, H. erectus may have only pushed farther north during warmer interglacial periods—thus not requiring fire, food storage, or clothing technology—[88] and their dispersal patterns indicate they generally stayed in warmer lower-to-middle latitudes. Author of. [9] When describing the teeth, Davidson Black named it a new species Sinanthropus pekinensis from Ancient Greek Σίνα sino- "China" and Latin pekinensis "of Peking". [1], In 2020 researchers reported that Homo erectus and Homo heidelbergensis lost more than half of their climate niche – climate they were adapted to – space, with no corresponding reduction in physical range, just before extinction and that climate change played a substantial role in extinctions of past Homo species. [79], In 1984, the vertebral column of the 1.6 Ma adolescent Turkana boy indicated that this individual did not have properly developed respiratory muscles in order to produce speech. By 1.9 million years ago, some of the early transitional humans had evolved into a new, fully human species in Africa. [citation needed], Dentally, H. erectus have the thinnest enamel of any Plio–Pleistocene hominin. The types of tools used by this species are called the Acheulean industry. However, a 1.8 Ma female pelvis from Gona, Ethiopia, shows that H. erectus babies with a brain volume of 310 cc (19 cu in) could have been safely delivered, which is 34–36% the mean adult size, compared to 40% in chimps and 28% in modern humans. Early in the century, due in part to the discoveries at Java and Zhoukoudian, the belief that modern humans first evolved in Asia was widely accepted. This could indicate the evolution of hairlessness around this time, as a lack of body hair would have left the skin exposed to harmful UV radiation. These all indicate that the H. erectus mouth was less capable of processing hard foods and more at shearing through tougher foods, thus reducing the variety of foods it could process, likely as a response to tool use. [34], In a wider sense, H. erectus had mostly been replaced by H. heidelbergensis by about 300 kya years ago, with possible late survival of H. erectus soloensis in Java an estimated 117-108kya.[1]. [18][19] Others have suggested that H. erectus/H. H. erectus would have had considerable leftovers, potentially pointing to food sharing or long-term food preservation (such as by drying) if most of the kill was indeed utilized. [79] In 1979, American paleontologist Thomas Wynn stated that Acheulean technology required operational intelligence (foresight and planning), being markedly more complex than Oldowan technology which included lithics of unstandardized shape, cross-sections, and symmetry. "H. erectus" redirects here. However, markedly smaller specimens have been found in Dmanisi, Georgia (H. e. georgicus); Koobi Fora and Olorgesailie, Kenya; and possibly Gona, Ethiopia. A few naturalists—Charles Darwin the most prominent among them—theorized that humans' earliest ancestors were African. Homo erectus definition is - an extinct large-brained hominid of the genus Homo (H. erectus) that is known from fossil remains in Africa, Europe, and Asia, is estimated to have flourished from 1.6 million years ago to 250,000 years ago, is thought to be the first hominid to master fire and inhabit caves, and is believed to be the immediate ancestor of modern man. Learn the difference between homo sapien and Homo erectus. He believed that the inhabitants were headhunters, and smashed open the skulls and ate the brains of their victims. Homo erectus was the first species of humans to master fire, and its remains have been found in Africa, Europe, and Asia. H. erectus men and women may have been roughly the same size as each other (exhibit reduced sexual dimorphism) like modern humans, which could indicate monogamy in line with general trends exhibited in primates. [68] It is debated if the H. e. pekinensis inhabitants of Zhoukoudian, Northern China, were capable of controlling fires as early as 770 kya to stay warm in what may have been a relatively cold climate. They were the first to stand in a standard upright posture out of all the hominids, and that has given their species name erectus. [49] A faster development rate could indicate a lower expected lifespan. χριστοφορος Lv 7. [47][66], H. erectus is credited with inventing the Acheulean stone tool industry, succeeding the Oldowan industry,[75][76] and were the first to make lithic flakes bigger than 10 cm (3.9 in), and hand axes (which includes bifacial tools with only 2 sides, such as picks, knives, and cleavers). This is similar to that of earlier Homo, despite a marked increase in activity and migratory capacity, likely because the longer legs of H. erectus were more energy-efficient in long-distance movement. [48] Like modern humans and unlike other great apes, there does not seem to have been a great size disparity between H. erectus men and women (size-specific sexual dimorphism), though there is not much fossil data regarding this. While we do not know for sure what all the relationships are between different members of the human family tree, what follows is … Homo erectus: Palaeoanthropology An extinct hominid of the genus Homo that lived from 1.8 to 1.3 million years ago (from the end of Pliocene to the later Pleistocene) in Africa, and spread to China and Java. This would mean australopithecines first evolved hairlessness. Homo erectus was the first of our ancestors to physically resemble modern humans. The oldest evidence of a dwelling (and a campfire) in Europe comes from Přezletice, Czech Republic, 700 kya during the Cromerian Interglacial. MTT : les résultats du 13 décembre. [67] However, dispersal patterns indicate that H. erectus generally avoided areas with high carnivore density. However, it is also possible that the energy-expensive guts decreased in size in H. erectus, because the large ape gut is used to synthesize fat by fermenting plant matter which was replaced by dietary animal fat, allowing more energy to be diverted to brain growth. [3][4][5] Asian populations of H. erectus may be ancestral to H. floresiensis[6] and possibly to H. (2019) judged Meganthropus to be a distinct genus of extinct ape. Directed by Joe D'Amato. La découverte d’un Homo erectus dans des strates archéologiques n’était pas « attendue » et encore moins dans les plus anciennes. Idle Not Innovative? "Clavicle length, throwing performance and the reconstruction of the Homo erectus shoulder". il y a 1 mois. 1. [12] If H. erectus did not exhibit sexual dimorphism, then it is possible that they were the first in the human line to do so, though the fragmentary fossil record for earlier species makes this unclear. If yes, then there was a substantial and sudden increase in female height. [24] although older literature has placed the fossils outside of Homo altogether. What is homoerectus? H. erectus was the first human ancestor to spread throughout the Old World, having a distribution in Eurasia extending from the Iberian Peninsula to Java. African populations of H. erectus are likely to be the direct ancestors to several human species, such as H. heidelbergensis and H. … [47], In 1999, British anthropologist Richard Wrangham proposed the "cooking hypothesis" which states that H. erectus speciated from the ancestral H. habilis because of fire usage and cooking 2 Mya to explain the rapid doubling of brain size between these two species in only a 500,000 year timespan, and the sudden appearance of the typical human body plan. Nonetheless, the estimate for H. erectus females is 84% higher than that for Australopithecus females, possibly due to an increased body size and a decreased growth rate. They had a slightly different face to us: it was flatter with more prominent brow ridges. This indicates that H. erectus was probably not cognitively comparable to modern humans, and that secondary altriciality—an extended childhood and long period of dependency due to the great amount of time required for brain maturation—evolved much later in human evolution, perhaps in the modern human/Neanderthal last common ancestor. However, casts were made by Weidenreich, which exist at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City and at the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology in Beijing. According to an article published in "Nature" on December 15, 2005, an international team led by Simon Parfitt of the Ancient Human Occupation of Britain (AHOB) project has discovered 32 pieces of black flint debitage, including a core and retouched flake, in alluvial sediments dated to about 700,000 years ago.. Homo erectus definition, the proposed extinct species of the human lineage that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene Epoch formerly known as Pithecanthropus erectus, having upright stature and a well-evolved postcranial skeleton, but with a smallish brain, low forehead, and protruding face: the first fossil specimen was discovered in Indonesia in 1891. H. erectus was the first fossil hominin found as a result of a directed expedition. In 1921, two teeth from Zhoukoudian, China discovered by Johan Gunnar Andersson had prompted widely publicized interest. Mintegy 1,8 millió (mások szerint 1,2 millió) évvel ezelőtt jelent meg és kb. [74], Artificial lighting may have led to increased waking hours—modern humans have about a 16-hour waking period, whereas other apes are generally awake from only sunup to sundown—and these additional hours were probably used for socializing. However, this is not indicative of anything in terms of speech capability as even large chimpanzees can have similarly expanded Broca's area, and it is unclear if these areas served as language centers in archaic humans. [89], In 1962, a 366 cm × 427 cm × 30 cm (12 ft × 14 ft × 1 ft) circle made with volcanic rocks was discovered in Olduvai Gorge. [citation needed] It has been proposed that Asian H. erectus have several unique characteristics from non-Asian populations (autapomorphies), but there is no clear consensus on what these characteristics are or if they are indeed limited to only Asia. Homo Erectus. Homo erectus was the first species to actively control fire; the first good evidence for controlled fire is from a Homo erectus site in Israel and is dated to roughly 780 ka. distinct from early H. heidelbergensis (in Africa also known as H. [98], The 1.5 Ma Turkana boy was diagnosed with juvenile spinal disc herniation, and, because this specimen was still growing, this caused some scoliosis (abnormal curving of the spine). It is largely unclear when human ancestors lost most of their body hair. And they spent most of their time impaling things with their long rods. Size, nonetheless, ranged widely from 146–185 cm (4 ft 9 in–6 ft 1 in) in height and 40–68 kg (88–150 lb) in weight. [7] As a chronospecies, the time of the disappearance of H. erectus is a matter of contention. Subsequent excavations uncovered about 200 human fossils from more than 40 individuals including five nearly complete skullcaps. However, it is possible australopithecines were capable of caring for debilitated group members. La Hague: Mouton, 361–372. At 61–76 cm (2–2.5 ft) intervals, rocks were piled up to 15–23 cm (6–9 in) high. [99], The 1,000–700 ka Java man specimen presents a noticeable osteocyte on the femur, likely Paget's disease of bone, and osteopetrosis, thickening of the bone, likely resulting from skeletal fluorosis caused by ingestion of food contaminated by fluorine-filled volcanic ash (as the specimen was found in ash-filled strata). African modern humans have been known to use lances tied to staffs and cause charging animals to impale themselves. Homo erectus (meaning 'upright man') is an extinct species of archaic human from the Pleistocene, with its earliest occurrence about 2 million years ago,[2] and its specimens are among the first recognisable members of the genus Homo. [24] It is sometimes considered as a wide-ranging, polymorphous species. Homo erectus was taller than earlier human ancestors. They stored them inside orifices. (2015). [95][96], The earliest probable example of infirming sick group members is a 1.77 Ma H. e. georgicus specimen who had lost all but one tooth due to age or gum disease, the earliest example of severe chewing impairment, yet still survived for several years afterwards. The most striking behavioral feature of this group is the reduction of body size dimorphism between sexes. [63] It was previously believed that, based on the narrow pelvis of Turkana boy, H. erectus could only safely deliver a baby with a brain volume of about 230 cc (14 cu in), equating to a similar brain growth rate as modern humans to achieve the average adult brain size of 600–1,067 cc (36.6–65.1 cu in). [78] They were likely multi-purpose tools, used in variety of activities such as cutting meat, wood, or edible plants. A 400 ka H. erectus hyoid bone from Castel di Guido, Italy, is bar-shaped—more similar to that of other Homo than to that of non-human apes and Australopithecus—but is devoid of muscle impressions, has a shield-shaped body, and is implied to have had reduced greater horns, meaning H. erectus lacked a humanlike vocal apparatus and thus anatomical prerequisites for a modern human level of speech. However, tools were likely used to process hard foods, thus affecting the chewing apparatus, and this combination may have instead increased dietary flexibility (though this does not equate to a highly varied diet). Maintaining fires would require firekeepers to have knowledge on slow-burning materials such as dung. A 2011 study suggested that it was H. habilis who reached West Asia from Africa, that early H. erectus developed there, and that early H. erectus would then have dispersed from West Asia to East Asia (Peking Man), Southeast Asia (Java Man), back to Africa (Homo ergaster), and to Europe (Tautavel Man), eventually evolving into modern humans in Africa. Homo erectus . erectus. The earliest records of Acheulean technology outside of Africa date to no older than 1 Mya, indicating it only became widespread after some secondary H. erectus dispersal from Africa. [111], In 1999, British science writers Marek Kohn and Steven Mithen said that many hand axes exhibit no wear and were produced en masse, and concluded that these symmetrical, tear-drop shaped lithics functioned primarily as display tools so males could prove their fitness to females in some courting ritual, and were discarded afterwards. Meganthropus, based on fossils found in Java, dated to between 1.4 and 0.9 Mya, was tentatively grouped with H. erectus in contrast to earlier interpretations of it as a giant species of early human. Homo erectus had a brain that was larger than that of Homo habilis, but generally smaller than that of modern humans. Krantz, G.S. [92], The earliest evidence of cave habitation is Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa, about 1.6 Mya, but evidence of cave use globally is sporadic until about 600 kya. Erectus have the thinnest enamel of any Plio–Pleistocene hominin species such as hand axe.They long..., throwing performance and the reconstruction of the early transitional humans had evolved into modern.... ] Populations in higher latitudes potentially developed lighter skin to prevent vitamin deficiency! Erectus from Tautavel, France variety of activities such as Australopithecus sp és kb species Homo... Erectus to inhabit a range of different environments, and migrate beyond Africa the! 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