finland and sweden war

Sweden did not become actively involved in … This took place three months after the German invasion of Poland that triggered the start of World War IIin Europe. [3], Russia had gathered a wealth of information from Finland using spies and other sources. Prior to 1809, Sweden had a reputation as one of Europe's most corrupt countries, but the loss in the war created the perception of an existential threat in the East for Sweden and motivated Swedish elites to reform its bureaucracy.The motivation behind the reforms were to make the Swedish state more effective and functional, and thus protect against the exi… [25][26], In memory of the 200th anniversary of the Finnish War, all Swedish, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Chronology of battles and events of the Finnish War, 200th Anniversary of Finnish War commemorative coin, "Southern Towns Mark War of Finland Bicentennial", "Golden collector coin in honour of the anniversary: two hundred years since the Finnish war and the birth of autonomy", Norbert Götz. For example, the Swedish archipelago fleet's ships that been docked in Åbo (nearly 50 gun sloops) were torched to prevent their capture. During World War I, Sweden declared neutrality. The War of Finland was to be the last war Sweden would fight, and brought to an end its influence in Europe. Finland became known as Österland, and its main urban settlement evolved in Åbo. Most of the laws from the time of the Swedish rule remained in force. [25][26] Prior to 1809, Sweden had a reputation as one of Europe's most corrupt countries, but the loss in the war created the perception of an existential threat in the East for Sweden and motivated Swedish elites to reform its bureaucracy. The victor of this struggle was Queen Margaret I of Denmark , who brought the three Scandinavian kingdoms of Sweden, Denmark and, Norway under her rule (the " Kalmar Union ") in 1389. In Saint Petersburg, his stubbornness was viewed as a convenient pretext to occupy Finland, thus pushing the Russo-Swedish frontier considerably to the west of the Russian capital and safeguarding it in case of any future hostilities between the two powers. The strength of the Swedish coastal forces deployed to the Finnish archipelago was equal in size to the coastal fleet that the Russians had obtained by the Sveaborg surrender. In the north, the situation was more complicated. Three days later, Buxhoeveden — pressed by the early onset of winter weather — signed an armistice, much to the dismay of Alexander I. To prevent the Russians from gaining strength, the Swedish coastal fleet's unit under Rear Admiral Claes Hjelmstjerna tried to engage them twice in battle. For example, Helsinki city centre was built during Russian rule. In 1809, the Russian Empire conquered Finland from Sweden in the Finnish War. Director: Pekka Parikka | Stars: Taneli Mäkelä, Vesa Vierikko, Timo Torikka, Heikki Paavilainen. Finland and Sweden have participated in in almost every NATO-mission since the end of the Cold War, from Bosnia to Afghanistan, causing some observers to note they are more reliable than some NATO member states. Finland and Sweden equip citizens for times of crisis with training and advice. Since Finland gained its full independence from Russia in 1917, the two countries have been close partners enjoying a special relationship. Sweden provided massive military assistance to Finland during World War II. Swedish came to be the language of the high-status people in many other parts of Finland as well. [18], A Russian battle fleet under Admiral Pyotr Khanikov (also Chanikoff) sortied in late July to clear the Swedish blockades in the archipelago, to cut contact between Åland and Sweden, and to stop Swedish supply transports sailing in the Gulf of Bothnia. However, since von Vegesack had been ordered to land his men at Björneborg, the king, after pursuing the matter unsuccessfully in military tribunals, condemned von Vegesack to lose his rank and title. Finnish War (1808–1809) Resulted in the eastern third of Sweden being established as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland within the Russian control. Meanwhile, the other Russian contingent — 5,000 men under Barclay de Tolly — endured great hardship in crossing the frozen gulf further north; they entered Umeå on 24 March. Finland - Finland - Finland under Swedish rule: Birger Jarl decided that a full effort was necessary to bring Finland into the Swedish sphere; in 1249 he led an expedition to Tavastia (now Häme), an area already Christianized. During the Finnish Civil War 1918 Sweden occupied Åland. Following the policies of the Reformation, in 1551 Mikael Agricola, bishop of Åbo, published his translation of the New Testament into the Finnish language. Sufficient stocks of supplies had not been prepared for the Swedish army, since King Gustaf IV Adolf thought it might be taken as provocative by the Russians. Throughout the Cold War, Finland walked a fine line between preserving its independence as a democracy with a free enterprise system and avoiding tempting … In the early 13th century, Bishop Thomas became the first bishop of Finland. The Emperor of Russia, Alexander I gave Finland the status of a Grand Duchy. The fortress surrendered on 6 May 1808 after prolonged negotiations with the Russians as the commanding officer Carl Olof Cronstedt and his council believed that resistance was futile. Wachtmeister's action was only a prelude to the peace negotiations that opened in August and resulted in the Treaty of Fredrikshamn (17 September), in which Sweden ceded the whole of Finland and all of its domains east of the Torne River (the north-eastern parts of what was then called Västerbotten, today Norrbotten) to Russia. Fighting ended in a stalemate, but can be viewed as a Swedish failure since they failed to decisively defeat the Russians. Contact between Sweden and what is now Finland was considerable even during pre-Christian times. Between 1523 and Sweden's final war with Russia in 1809, a state of war had existed between these two countries for 67 out of those 292 years. Birger built a fortress in Tavastia and some fortifications along the northern coast of the Gulf of Finland, where Swedish settlement on a mass scale began. With the Royal Navy supporting the Swedish battle fleet there was little the Russian battle fleet could accomplish. [24], In memory of the 200th anniversary of the Finnish War, all Swedish 1 krona coins minted during 2009 featured a stylised depiction of the sky and the sea on the reverse side, flanked by a quote by Anton Rosell: Den underbara sagan om ett land på andra sidan havet ("The wonderful story of a land on the other side of the sea"). Napoleon ruled Europe and prevented the British from entering European ports. The Grand Duchy of Finland was to retain the Gustavian constitution of 1772 with only slight modifications until 1919. During World War II, Finland successfully defended its independence through cooperation with Germany and resisted subsequent invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory. Russian ships continued to arrive from the east but remained within the shallow narrows where the Swedish ships of the line could not reach. The announcement on 2 September 1944 of the ceasefire and the Moscow Armistice between Finland and the USSR triggered frantic efforts by the 20th Mountain Army, which immediately started Operation Birke. But nobody has asked the real question that matters. The Swedish fleet suffered from outbreaks of scurvy and had been unable to maintain the blockade on its own. In 1495–1497, a war between Sweden and Russia was fought. Finland was returned to Sweden, while the majority of Russia's conquests (Swedish Estonia, Livonia, Ingria, Kexholm and the bulk of Karelia) were ceded to the tsardom. Almost all Finnish soldiers in Sweden (most of them in the Umeå area) were repatriated after the war. On Sept. 17, 1809, Sweden lived through one of the darkest days in its history. Even the wells were found to be unusable. Russia would create the Grand Duchy of Finland from the territory obtained from Sweden, and would attach the areas gained from Sweden in the 18th century (so-called Old Finland) to the new Grand Duchy. [25][26] The motivation behind the reforms were to make the Swedish state more effective and functional, and thus protect against the existential threat in the East. Prior to 1809, Sweden had a reputation as one of Europe's most corrupt countries, but the loss in the war created the perception of an existential threat in the East for Sweden and motivated Swedish elites to reform its bureaucracy.The motivation behind the reforms were to make the Swedish state more effective and functional, and thus protect against the exi… Capture of the main body of the Swedish archipelago fleet had resulted in a real advantage to the Russians since it allowed them to gain superiority in the narrow waters of the Finnish archipelago where large ships of the line could not operate. The Royal Navy captured 35 Russian ships and burnt 20 others before leaving the Baltic Sea on 28 September 1809.[21]. Total British control of the Gulf of Finland was a large obstacle to the Russian supply network and required sizable garrisons to be posted all along the Finnish coast. Hostilities thus continued until May, when Shuvalov finally reached Umeå, where he was succeeded by Kamensky. The Principality of Moscow conquered Novgorod, preparing the way for a unified Russia, and soon tensions arose with Sweden. The Winter War was fought in the four months following the Soviet Union's invasion of Finland on November 30, 1939. The number of Finnish-Swedish connections and the quality of cooperation in most areas … During the Crimean War, Sweden was on the verge of joining Britain and France with the ambition of retaking Finland when the war ended in 1856. Finland’s participation in the war brought major benefits to Germany. On 14 August, Count Nikolay Kamensky decided to use this numerical superiority to launch a new offensive. Both Finland and Sweden joined the European Union together in 1995. After the Black Death and internal power struggles in Sweden, Queen Margaret I of Denmark united the Nordic countries in the Union of Kalmar in 1397, with the approval of the Swedish nobility. Finland did not take part in World War I, but nationalism also had an influ… Sweden did not become actively involved in … During the period of Russian rule the country generally prospered. Also the Swedish southern army of Finland, consisting of roughly 4,000 men under Major General von Vegesack, was moved from Åland to Finland, and landed at Kristinestad in late autumn, joining with von Döbeln's forces. After the sea would be clear of ice there would be nothing to prevent Swedish forces from landing troops on the shore. Second Swedish Crusade to Finland Area of Tavastians and south-western Finland fall to … Moreover, Sweden and Finland have hosted and taken part in … Most of the fortifications in Finland had not been completed and those that were completed had mostly fallen into neglect and disrepair. The Winter War was a war between the Soviet Union (USSR) and Finland.It began with a Soviet invasion of Finland on 30 November 1939, three months after the outbreak of World War II, and ended three and a half months later with the Moscow Peace Treaty on 13 March 1940. Фомин А.А., Швеция в системе европейской политики накануне и в период русско-шведской войны 1808–1809 гг., М., 2003. During his rule, the Swedish church was reformed. Invasion of the Ruhr, 1923. The Swedish Voluntary Air Force also provided 25 aircraft that destroyed twelve Soviet aircraft while only losing six planes with only two t… Finland and Sweden share a long history, similar legal systems, and an economic and social model. In the south, the Swedish battle fleet remained anchored within the Finnish archipelago, blocking some of the deeper coastal sea routes from Hangö towards Åbo. Other notable effects were the Swedish parliament's adoption of a new constitution and the establishment of the House of Bernadotte, the new Swedish royal house, in 1818. The landing began on 19 June and was initially successful. Before the end of March 1808 even Vasa was taken. The basic reason for the plan was to avoid major decisive battles. For wars during the Swedish rule (1249–1809), see list of wars involving Sweden. After the Russian Emperor Alexander I concluded the 1807 Treaty of Tilsit with Napoleon, Alexander, in his letter on 24 September 1807 to the Swedish King Gustav IV Adolf, informed the king that the peaceful relations between Russia and Sweden depended on Swedish agreement to abide by the limitations of the Treaty of Tilsit which in practice meant that Sweden would have been required to follow the Continental System. Seemingly aware of the potential military risks, the defense ministers of Nordic nations Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark and Iceland warned in … Referring to the treaties of 1780 and 1800, the emperor demanded that Gustav Adolf close the Baltic Sea to all foreign warships. Most of the Swedish plans assumed that warfare would be impossible during winter, disregarding the lessons from recent wars. The Russians, however, were able to send reinforcements to the area which were, in addition to being numerically superior, both far better trained and equipped than the peasants and militia the Swedes had raised. During the 1580s, this resulted in a bloody guerrilla warfare between the Finnish settlers and Karelians in some regions, especially in Ostrobothnia. During the Thirty Years' War Sweden gained tracts in Germany as well, including Western Pomerania, Wismar, the Duchy of … For example, Helsinki city centre was built during Russian rule. On 30 August, the Swedish coastal fleet defeated its Russian adversaries at the Battle of Grönvikssund, forcing the Russians to abandon their plans to invade Åland and concentrate on defense. While none of the fights ended with a decisive winner, the overall strategic victory went to Russia, who gained advantage in the Finnish archipelago by managing to link up their separate coastal units. [17], Swedish efforts to harass the Russians with landings continued, with roughly 1,000 volunteers under Captain Anders Gyllenbögel landing on 1 August to support Swedish-led uprisings on the coast south of Vasa. During World War II, Finland supported Germany. That year is often held to signify the incorporation of Finland into the kingdom of Sweden. The presence of the British naval units kept the Russian battlefleet strictly confined to Kronstadt, and after the British constructed artillery batteries to the Porkkala cape they cut off the coastal sea route from Russian ships. Abandoned Swedish fortifications on the Hangö Peninsula (Finnish: Hanko) were taken and manned on 21 March and on the same day the Russian army took Åbo (Finnish: Turku) while a small detachment was sent to Åland. A third unit was to advance into Sweden by land, going around the gulf and through the town of Torneå (Finnish: Tornio). The Second World War. The Emperor of Russia, Alexander I gave Finland the status of a Grand Duchy. Small boat actions took place during the night time of 17–18 July which became known as the skirmish at Lövö (Finnish: Lövön kahakka). Захаров Г., Русско-шведская война 1808-1809, М., 1940. An important part of the 16th-century history of Finland was growth of the area settled by the farming population. The motif on the coin is the passage of Finland from Sweden to Russia. [14], Having been alerted to the approach of additional Russian coastal units from Sveaborg, the Swedish forces moved to intercept them before they could link up with the Russian coastal unit now bottled up at Åbo. On February 21, 1808, 24,000 Russian troops under Friedrich Wilhelm von Buxhoevden crossed the border in Ahvenkoski and took the town of Lovisa (Finnish: Loviisa). The Russians gained the main body of the Swedish archipelago fleet intact as well as large stores of supplies and munitions. In April Napoleon began to devote more attention to the situation in Spain, and the British navy remained a continuous threat for troop movements between Denmark and Sweden. In Savolax the Russians also forced the Swedes to withdraw. [23], The 200th anniversary of the Finnish War was selected as the main motif for a high value commemorative coin, the €100 200th Anniversary of Finnish War commemorative coin, minted in 2008. These were concentrated in the southern part of Finland. In the end instructions which the new Swedish commander in Finland, General Wilhelm Mauritz Klingspor, received from the king were an unsuccessful and open-ended mixture of ideas from these very different plans. According to a more modern historical description, Finland became integrated with the Swedish realm mainly due to trade and settlements via the Åland Islands and the crusades had no decisive significance. King Gustav Vasa died in 1560 and his crown was passed to his three sons in separate turns. The king had thought it impossible to defend Finland should the enemy attack during the winter and chose largely to ignore the repeated warnings of the Russian threat he received in early 1808. The landing succeeded, and together with Swedish troops advancing from the north, they managed to drive the Russians towards Björneborg (Finnish: Pori). Defenses were strong enough to prevent the Russians from trying to storm the fortress by surprise. Had the king accepted the landing of 10,000 British troops in Skåne, where the expeditionary force had been authorized to disembark, it would have enabled the Swedes to release at least 10,000 trained soldiers for the Finnish War. The Russians, however, managed to gather a force of 3,000 men which was able to force the ill-trained Swedes to withdraw. Landings were further complicated by the Swedish Navy's failure to tightly block the coastal sea route past Hangö. [15], Sweden performed several small landings along the coast near Kristinestad (Finnish: Kristiinankaupunki) and Kaskö (Finnish: Kaskinen) and managed to raise local men to oppose the Russians. The Vikings were known to Finns due to both their participation in commerce and their plundering. By the morning of 20 June, the Swedish forces were forced to withdraw. In May, the Russians suffered further setbacks when they were driven from Gotland and Åland, where a Swedish flotilla, supported by the local population, compelled the small Russian force left on the main island of Fasta Åland to surrender, and then invaded the island of Kumlinge where the bulk of the Russian garrison on the Åland Islands was based. Engman, Max: Ett långt farväl - Finland mellan Sverige och Ryssland efter 1809. Sweden’s History With Finland. Later medieval legends describe Swedish attempts to conquer and 'Christianize' Finland by the First Swedish Crusade sometime in the mid-1150s. Yet French and British naval forces had already been using the Swedish island of Gotland as a base of operations against Russia in the Baltic Sea. Ниве П. А., Русско-шведская война 1808-1809, СПБ, 1910. In 1521 the Kalmar Union collapsed and Gustav Vasa became the King of Sweden. Russo-Swedish War (1788–90) Also known as Gustav III's Russian War in Sweden, and Catherine II's Swedish War in Russia. [6] Since Klingspor had not arrived, Lieutenant General Karl Nathanael af Klercker acted as Swedish commander in Finland. Finland was part of Sweden for almost 700 years from around 1150 until the Finnish War of 1809 that saw Finland becoming an autonomous part of the Russian Empire as the Grand Duchy of Finland. On 30 Nov. 1939 the USSR invades Finland. Anjala League The war of 1808-09 resulted in Sweden being forced to relinquish Finland and the Åland Islands to Russia, whereby Swedish-speaking Åland became part of the Grand Duchy of Finland. The common people of Finland suffered during this period because of drafts, high taxes, and abuse by military personnel. According to the archaeological finds, Christianity first gained a foothold in Finland during the 11th century as well. The Winter War was fought in the four months following the Soviet Union 's invasion of Finland on November 30, 1939. This resulted in the Cudgel War of 1596–1597, a desperate peasant rebellion, which was suppressed brutally and bloodily. During the Cold War, Finland was a border state between the Soviet Union and the West. A video of how i think a war between Sweden and Finland would start and play out.Songs: "Our Story Begins" and "Hitman" by Kevin Macleod The third force, commanded by Count Shuvalov, struck against Torneå and, braving fierce frost, encircled a Swedish army, which capitulated on 25 March. These successes yielded a promotion to Field Marshal for Wilhelm Mauritz Klingspor. Swedish forces had mostly just withdrawn before the advancing Russian often destroying usable materials. These raids caused much confusion, and Russian responses to them thinned their strength along the coast. Seventy percent of the population was engaged in agriculture and forestry, and half of the value of production came from these primary industries in 1900. This included over 8,000 Swedish army and air force volunteers. Ironically, the War of Finland had very little to do with any problems that Sweden had with Russia when it first began, but was more to do with the European struggle for political power, especially the struggle between Britain and its historical enemy, France, now led by the Emperor Napoleon. Sweden has generally speaking implemented slightly more lax restrictions while Finland has closed borders and had slightly stronger restrictions. Attempts to stop the Russians deeper in the archipelago were also unsuccessful. When Finland gained its independence, the Ålanders began to hope for reunion with Sweden… In the meantime, the Royal Navy attacked Copenhagen and the Anglo-Russian War (1807–1812) was declared. The Swedish situation was further weakened by being at war with France and Denmark, both of whom threatened Sweden's possessions, with a joint invasion force of 45,000 troops in Denmark (under French general Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte) and a further 36,000 in Norway. Consequence, Russia had gathered a wealth of information from Finland using spies and other.... Finns due to the 36,000 estimated for Sweden mind that Sweden and what now! Into finland and sweden war and lacked both adequate food and ammunition stores this forced the to! Completed and those that were completed had mostly fallen into neglect and disrepair remained a pillar its... Driven from Central Finland, Sweden gradually became a special relationship on to an offensive during Winter... 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