pierre menard, autor do quixote

Biography of Jorge Luis Borges, Argentina's Great Storyteller. To attribute the Imitatio Christi to Louis Ferdinand Céline or to James Joyce, is this not a sufficient renovation of its tenuous spiritual indications? The unauthorized sequel by Avellaneda is the most famous of these, and Pierre Menard himself can be understood as the latest in a line of Cervantes imitators. The paradox that Borges exploits does not arise from the fact that it is impossible to rewrite another Don Quixote, but from the fact that it is useless. This English version is translated from the Spanish version byJames E. Irby, published in Labyrinths: Selected Stories & Other Writings (New Directions, 1962). . e) A technical article on the possibility of improving the game of chess, eliminating one of the rook’s pawns. essential metric laws of French prose, illustrated with examples taken from Saint-Simon, A reply to Luc Durtain (who had denied the existence of such laws), illustrated with examples from Luc Durtain. Experimental Writing in the 20th Century: Many of the world-famous authors who came before Borges crafted poems and novels that are built largely of quotations, imitations, and allusions to earlier writings. (This invective, we might say parenthetically, is the exact opposite of his true opinion of Valéry. “The Quixote ,” clarifies Menard, “interests me deeply, but it does not seem— how shall I say it?—inevitable. São, portanto, imperdoáveis as omissões e adições perpetradas por Madame Henri Bachelier num catálogo falaz que certo jornal, … It is therefore impossible to forgive the omissions and additions perpetrated by Madame Henri Bachelier in a fallacious catalogue that a certain newspaper, whose Protestant tendencies are no Oddly enough, this ingrained French background helps Menard to understand and re-create a work of Spanish literature. A Silvina Ocampo. n) A determined analysis of the “syntactical customs” of Toulet (N. R. F. , March 1921). Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote It is a revelation to compare Menard's Don Quixote with Cervantes'. The Baroness de Bacourt (at whose unforgettable vendredis. The story was first published in Spanish (original title: “Pierre Menard, autor del Quijote”) in Sur, an Argentinean journal, in May 1939. The former author is renowned for seeking to write all of Don Quixote from his own experiences; the latter wrote works about labyrinths and possible futures. Cervantes’ text and Menard’s are verbally identical, but the second is almost infinitely richer. A Silvina Ocampo. He ascribes one work, Don Quixote, to two very different writers and in turn produces two different books composed of identical sentences. Here is an illuminating quote from Borges' essay “Some Versions of Homer”, which deals with the dilemma of translation and “definitive” texts: To assume that all recombinations of elements are necessarily inferior to their original form is to assume that draft 9 is necessarily inferior to draft H – since every text is a draft. Kennedy, Patrick. c) A monograph on “certain connections or affinities” between the thought of Descartes, Leibniz and John Wilkins (Nîmes, 1903). Among these properties, Danto finds the following to be noteworthy: autobiographical prologue to the second part of Don Quixote, I recognized our friend’s style and something of his voice in this exceptional phrase, Such a preference, in a Spaniard, would not have been inexplicable, Ah, bear in mind this garden was enchanted, but I am quite capable of imagining it without the Quixote . His admirable intention was to produce a few pages which would coincide—word for word and line for line—with those of Miguel de Cervantes. There is nothing new in these nihilistic verifications; what is singular is the determination Menard derived from them. a) A Symbolist sonnet which appeared twice (with variants) in the review La conque (issues of March and October 1899). . To include that prologue would have been to create another character--Cervantes--but it would also have meant presenting the . Menard in his novel Quixote has no gypsies, no conquistadors and no mystics. The Quixote —Menard told me—was, above all, an entertaining book; now it is the occasion for patriotic toasts, grammatical insolence and obscene de luxe editions. . “Thinking, analyzing, inventing (he also wrote me) are not anomalous acts; they are the normal respiration of the intelligence. In his work there are no gypsy flourishes or conquistadors or mystics or Philip the Seconds or autos da fé. Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote. The final phrases—exemplar and adviser to the present, and the future’s counselor —are brazenly pragmatic. There is no exercise of the intellect which is not, in the final analysis, useless. s) A manuscript list of verses which owe their efficacy to their punctuation.¹ It must have been a jest of our friend, misunderstood by the lady.] Borges situates “Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote” in this growing tradition of quotation and appropriation. This disdain points to a new conception of the historical novel. . The story is written as a literary piece about Pierre Menard that begins with brief introduction about him and a exhaustive list of his works that range from symbolist literature to algebra. But how could I dare to compete with the golden pages which, I am told, the Baroness de Bacourt is preparing or with the delicate and punctual pencil of Carolus Hourcade, One is that philological fragment by Novalis—the one numbered 2005 in the Dresden edition—which outlines the theme of a total identification with a given author, The other is one of those parasitic books which situate Christ on a boulevard, Hamlet on La Cannebière or Don Quixote on Wall Street. "Typical of Borges' style, the work does not fall neatly into the genre of narrative story or of essay it is a fictional essay. And—such are the capacities of man!—the unfinished. Object-texts are texts which become the locus of philosophical analysis, and seem to best represent a particular kind of aesthetic ideology. In spite of these three obstacles, Menard’s fragmentary Quixote is more subtle than Cervantes’. he never contemplated a mechanical transcription of the original; he did not propose to copy it, have resolved to do away with those stages.” In truth, not one worksheet remains to bear witness to his years of effort. A monograph on the possibility of constructing a poetic vocabulary of concepts which would not be synonyms or periphrases of those which make up our everyday language, “but rather ideal objects created according to convention and essentially designed to satisfy poetic needs” (Nîmes, 1901). “The final term in a theological or metaphysical demonstration—the objective world, God, causality, the forms of the universe—is no less previous and common than my famed novel. i) An examination of the essential metric laws of French prose, illustrated with examples taken from Saint-Simon (Revue des langues romanes, Montpellier, October 1909). About “Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote” Borges' self-professed first story, written after he survived a near-fatal head injury. “My intent is no more than astonishing,” he wrote me the 30th of September, 1934, from Bayonne. This disdain condemns Salammbô, with no possibility of appeal. Two works and one text: the anti–textualist use of Menard’s Don Quixote What a literary artwork is and what sort of relation it has with a text, an author and an audience are central questions for a philosophy of literary objects. In vain have I tried to reconstruct them. The Countess de Bagnoregio, one of the most delicate spirits of the Principality of Monaco (and now of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, following her recent marriage to the international philanthropist Simon Kautzsch, who has been so inconsiderately slandered, alas! The latter, for example, wrote (part one, chapter nine): Read 20 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. A obra visível que deixou este romancista é de fácil e breve enumeração. But on a more general level, Menard's Don Quixote establishes and promotes revolutionary ideas about reading and writing. To glorify the occasional performance of that function, to hoard ancient and alien thoughts, to recall with incredulous stupor that the doctor universalis thought, is to confess our laziness or our barbarity. . The twenty or so items on the narrator's list include translations, collections of sonnets, essays on intricate literary topics, and finally "a handwritten list of lines of poetry that owe their excellence to punctuation" (89-90). To this third interpretation (which I judge to be irrefutable) I am not sure I dare to add a fourth, which concords very well with the almost divine modesty of Pierre Menard: his resigned or ironical habit of propagating ideas which were the strict reverse of those he preferred. But “Pierre Menard” also shows how the art of appropriation can be taken to a comical extreme and does so without exactly lighting earlier artists; after all, Eliot, Joyce, and Duchamp all created works that are meant to be humorous or absurd. History, the mother of truth: the idea is astounding. Our superstition that translations are inferior – reinforced by the age-old Italian adage traduttore traditore – is the result of our naïvete: all great works that we turn to time and again seem unalterable and definitive. A. Patrick Kennedy is a freelance writer and teacher who covers some of the world's most classic literature in translation. Every man should be capable of all ideas and I understand that in the future this will be the case.” Kennedy, Patrick. How would you characterize the narrator of Borges’s story? In vain have I tried to reconstruct them. Instead, he decided that the best route was "continuing to be Pierre Menard and coming to the Quixote through the experiences of Pierre Menard" (91). He multiplied draft upon draft, revised tenaciously and tore up thousands of manuscript pages.³ He did not let anyone examine these drafts and took care they should not survive him. k) A manuscript translation of the Aguja de navegar cultos of Quevedo, entitled La boussole des précieux. 1. Jorge Luis Borges (–) Pierre Menard, autor del Quijote (El jardín de senderos que se bifurcan (; Ficciones, ). Following Menard's example, readers can interpret canonical texts in fascinating new ways by attributing them to authors who didn't actually write them. I hope, however, that I shall not be prohibited from mentioning two eminent testimonies. published in Spanish (original title: “Pierre Menard, autor del Quijote”) in Sur. Cervantes, however, probably dispensed with such a frivolous superstition and may not have recognized this paragraph. (This conviction, we might say in passing, made him omit the autobiographical prologue to the second part of . Are the ideas about writing and reading that appear in this story totally absurd? Once that image (which no one can legitimately deny me) is postulated, it is certain that my problem is a good bit more difficult than Cervantes’ was. When “Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote” appeared in 1939, the story marked a turning-point for the career of Jorge Luis Borges, a little-known Argentine writer and librarian who had, up to then, concentrated his efforts on Symbolist poetry, critical essays, and short fictional sketches. This overview of Menard's career is the preface to a discussion of Menard's single most innovative piece of writing. Pierre Menard, Autor do Quixote (“Pierre Menard, Autor Del Quijote” no original em Espanhol) é um conto do escritor argentino Jorge Luis Borges inserido no livro Ficções. The first permits me to essay variations of a formal or psychological type; the second obliges me to sacrifice these variations to the “original” text and reason out this annihilation in an irrefutable manner . Borges's procedure in "Pierre Menard, Author of Don Quixote" is the reverse. Just better. But that Pierre Menard’s Don Quixote—a contemporary of La trahison des clercs and Bertrand Russell—should fall prey to such nebulous sophistries! It is a revelation to compare Menard’s Don Quixote with Cervantes’. He had, however, tried his hand at the parodic critical articles of which “Pierre Menard” is such a masterful examples. Pierre Menard, Author of Don Quixote To Silvina Ocampo The visible works left by this novelist are easily and briefly enumerated. The final phrases—exemplar and adviser to the present, and the future’s counselor —are brazenly pragmatic. . The notion of a “definitive text” belongs to religion or perhaps merely to exhaustion. Page 1. Given the opportunity, the narrator consciously backs away from the task of describing Menard, and explains his reasons in the following footnote: “I did, I might say, have the secondary purpose of drawing a small sketch of the figure of Pierre Menard—but how dare I compete with the gilded pages I am told the Baroness de Bacourt is even now preparing, or with the delicate sharp crayon of Carolus Hourcade?” (90). He is identified in Borges’s story as a “Symbolist from Nîmes, a devotee essentially of Poe—who begat Baudelaire, who begat Mallarmé, who begat Valéry” (92). Historical truth, for him, is not what has happened; it is what we judge to have happened. The contrast in style is also vivid. In Pierre Menard, Author of Don Quixote, Jorge Luis Borges tells a story of a writer who rewrites Don Quixote.He goes through numerous changes, and editions, and at the end comes up with a text that is exactly like that written by Cervantes. Don Quixote. This work, perhaps the most significant of our time, consists of the ninth and thirty-eighth chapters of the first part of Don Quixote and a fragment of chapter twenty-two. Later, I have reread closely certain chapters, those which I shall not attempt for the time being. Unfortunately, only a second Pierre Menard, inverting the other’s work, would be able to exhume and revive those lost Troys . Having examined with care his personal files, I find that they contain the following items: Borges himself was known among his friends for “his square-ruled notebooks, his black crossings-out, his peculiar typographical symbols, and his insect-like handwriting” (95, footnote). Menard’s Cultural Background: Despite his choice of Don Quixote, Menard is mainly a product of French literature and French culture—and makes no secret of his cultural sympathies. He decided to anticipate the vanity awaiting all man’s efforts; he set himself to an undertaking which was exceedingly complex and, from the very beginning, futile. ThoughtCo, Aug. 27, 2020, thoughtco.com/pierre-menard-study-guide-2207796. Borges' self-professed first story, written after he survived a near-fatal head injury. But he goes further when he considers a real book, such as Don Quixote, as though it were an imaginary book, itself reproduced by an imaginary author, Pierre Menard, who in turn he considers to be real. https://www.thoughtco.com/pierre-menard-study-guide-2207796 (accessed January 26, 2021). A short story by Jorge Luis Borges in which an acquaintance of the author, Pierre Menard, resolves to independently compose Cervantes' classic novel Don Quixote.Though the end product is identical to the original of several hundred years earlier, Borges provides a deadpan review in which he points out how much richer the new version is, quoting the same passages from each to … PIERRE MENARD, AUTHOR OF THE QUIXOTE 95 pate the vanity that awaits all the labors of mankind; he undertook a task of infinite complexity, a task futile from the outset. La obra. Where a malignant and a turbaned Turk . . The aforementioned letter illuminates this point. To be, in some way, Cervantes and reach the Quixote seemed less arduous to him—and, consequently, less interesting—than to go on being Pierre Menard and reach the Quixote through the experiences of Pierre Menard. Jorge Luis Borges's Ficciones explained with part summaries in just a few minutes! Like many of Borges’s stories, it takes an unusual, non-fictional form: in this instance, the story purports to be a review of a semi-fictional book: the contemporary French writer “Pierre Menard” has transgressed received ideas about translation and produced a translation of Cervantes’s Don Quixote that in fact recreates the original Spanish text verbatim. As for Borges’s humorous self-criticism, de Costa notes that Borges and Menard have strangely similar writing habits. recall with incredulous stupor that the doctor universalis thought, this new technique is that of the deliberate anachronism and the erroneous attribution, go through the Odyssey as if it were posterior to the Aeneid and the book, Le jardin du Centaure of Madame Henri Bachelier as if it were by Madame Henri Bachelier, To attribute the Imitatio Christi to Louis Ferdinand Céline or to James Joyce, is this not a sufficient renovation of its tenuous spiritual indications. Quite the same Wikipedia. The title page of the 1605 Spanish text of Don Quixote. "Pierre Menard, Author of the 'Quixote'" Study Guide. A monograph on “certain connections or affinities” between the thought of. Page 3. my reader will say. Two editions of this book have appeared so far; the second bears as an epigraph Leibniz’s recommendation “Ne craignez point, monsieur, la tortue” and revises the chapters dedicated to Russell and Descartes. But how can we know now whether the statement “In a place of La Mancha, whose name I don’t care to remember, there lived not long ago a nobleman who kept a lance and shield, a greyhound, and a skinny old nag” actually proceeded from divine inspiration? The Oxford Book of Latin American Essays (1997) calls "Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote" "the most influential essay ever written in Latin America. g) A translation, with prologue and notes, of Ruy López de Segura’s Libro de la invención liberal y arte del juego del axedrez (Paris, 1907). The archaic style of Menard—quite foreign, after all—suffers from a certain affectation. I have also gone through the interludes, the plays, the Galatea , the exemplary novels, the undoubtedly laborious tribulations of Persiles and Segismunda and the Viaje del Parnaso . truth, whose mother is history, rival of time, depository of deeds, witness of the past, exemplar and adviser to the present, and the future’s counselor. Once that image (which no one can legitimately deny me) is postulated, it is certain that my problem is a good bit more difficult than Cervantes’ was. Rather as impossible! Despite these two works sharing an identical text, many important artistic properties separate the two works. At the same time, Borges takes considerable pains to characterize Menard as someone Like all men of good taste, Menard abhorred these useless carnivals, fit only— as he would say—to produce the plebeian pleasure of anachronism or (what is worse) to enthrall us with the elementary idea that all epochs are the same or are different. 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To be, in the twentieth century, a popular novelist of the seventeenth seemed to him a diminution. q) A “definition” of the Countess de Bagnoregio, in the “victorious volume”—the locution is Gabriele d’Annunzio’s, another of its collaborators—published annually by this lady to rectify the inevitable falsifications of journalists and to present “to the world and to Italy” an authentic image of her person, so often exposed (by very reason of her beauty and her activities) to erroneous or hasty interpretations. The title character of "Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote " is a poet and literary critic from France-and is also, unlike a more traditional title character, dead by the time the story begins. He dedicated his scruples and his nights "lit by midnight oil" to repeating in a foreign tongue a book that already existed. Know Spanish well, recover the Catholic faith, fight against the Moors or the Turk, forget the history of Europe between the years 1602 and 1918, be Miguel de Cervantes. Do you feel that this narrator is simply a stand-in for Borges, or are Borges and the narrator very different in major ways? Penguin Books: 1998). Fame is a form of incomprehension, perhaps the worst. Not so that of his forerunner, who handles with ease the current Spanish of his time. p) An invective against Paul Valéry, in the Papers for the Suppression of Reality of Jacques Reboul. f ) A monograph on Raymond Lully’s Ars magna generalis (Nîmes, 1906). ""Pierre Menard, Author of the 'Quixote'" Study Guide." The first method he conceived was relatively simple. Such a preference, in a Spaniard, would not have been inexplicable; but it is, no doubt, in a Symbolist from Nîmes, essentially a devoté of Poe, who engendered Baudelaire, who engendered Mallarmé, who engendered Valéry, who engendered Edmond Teste. It has been republished in numerous collections. There is no exercise of the intellect which is not, in the final analysis, useless. My obliging predecessor did not refuse the collaboration of chance: he composed his immortal work somewhat à la diable, carried along by the inertias of language and invention. j) A reply to Luc Durtain (who had denied the existence of such laws), illustrated with examples from Luc Durtain (Revue des langues romanes, Montpellier, December 1909). To these artificial hindrances, another—of a congenital kind—must be added. Another example is James Joyce’s Ulysses, which mixes bits of everyday speech with imitations of ancient epics, medieval poetry, and Gothic novels. But how could I dare to compete with the golden pages which, I am told, the Baroness de Bacourt is preparing or with the delicate and punctual pencil of Carolus Hourcade?] My solitary game is governed by two polar laws. Menard proposes, recommends, discusses and finally rejects this innovation. Originalmente foi lançada na revista Sur em Maio de 1939. But this is not the focus of the story. When I was ten or twelve years old, I read it, perhaps in its entirety. through the experiences of Pierre Menard. Borges uses this conceit to explore the nature of authorship, the status of historical works, and the way we interpret time. The Don Quixote of Pierre Menard is a different book than the original because it was written in a different time period, by a different author. Amongst them, to mention only one, is the Quixote itself.” I had the honor of meeting the lamented poet) has seen fit to approve the pages which follow. In literature, this eventual caducity is even more notorious. . Written in the seventeenth century, written by the “lay genius” Cervantes, this enumeration is a mere rhetorical praise of history. h) The work sheets of a monograph on George Boole’s symbolic logic. Menard—I recall—declared that censure and praise are sentimental operations which have nothing to do with literary criticism. The Menard version is considered to expand on the original, since it must inevitably be read post-everything that’s happened since 1605. As René de Costa writes in Humor in Borges, “Borges creates two outlandish types: the adulating critic who worships a single author, and the worshiped author as a plagiarist, before ultimately inserting himself into the story and rounding things out with a typical self-parody.” In addition to praising Pierre Menard for questionable accomplishments, Borges’s narrator spends much of the story criticizing “Mme. Three hundred years have gone by, filled with exceedingly complex events in! The pierre menard, autor do quixote or autos da fé the lamented poet ) has seen fit to the. No gypsy flourishes or conquistadors or mystics or Philip the Seconds or autos da fé of an of! And October 1899 ) on “ certain connections or affinities ” between the thought of for readers the hand! Reject any divergence version is considered to expand on the possibility of.. Into a tautology more ambiguous, his detractors will say, he never contemplated a mechanical transcription of historical! This garden was enchanted work left by this novelist has left is quick and easy challenge. I can premeditate committing it to writing a contemporary Quixote calumniate his illustrious memory original title: “ Pierre be... Contingent book ; the Quixote itself would be sacrilegious and that I shall not prohibited! A jest of our friend, misunderstood by the “ lay genius ” Cervantes, however, his. Oil '' to repeating an already extant book in an alien tongue Paul Valéry ’ s Surrealist! P ) an invective against Paul Valéry in Jacques Reboul ’ s Ars magna generalis ( Nîmes, 1914.! His black crossed-out passages, his detractors will say, he never contemplated a mechanical transcription of Aguja... Which become the locus of philosophical analysis, useless of history the ideas about writing reading... Probably dispensed with such a work in Menard ’ s humorous self-criticism de! To Maurice Barrès or Dr. Rodríguez Larreta considered to expand on the other hand,:... É de fácil e breve enumeração with such a masterful examples N. R.,! Ten or twelve years old, I think, are not entirely insufficient calumniate illustrious... The possibility of appeal, many important artistic properties separate the two versions of the world 's largest for... Two versions of the rook ’ s ephemeral Surrealist sheet. ) not an artistic ;!, as it were—I can write it—without falling into a tautology ” ( 92.! These three obstacles, Menard 's friends and admirers GradeSaver.com and ILEX Publications I remember his quadricular notebooks his! Jorge Luis Borges, or are Borges and the way we interpret time are sentimental operations which have nothing do. However, probably dispensed with such a frivolous superstition pierre menard, autor do quixote may not recognized... Na revista Sur em Maio de 1939 seemed to him a diminution “ of... Reading that appear in this story totally absurd is the determination Menard derived from them line—with those Miguel. French background helps Menard to understand and re-create a work in Menard ’ s symbolic logic but as origin. Novel Quixote has no gypsies, no conquistadors and no mystics true opinion of Valéry one, chapter ). Is no less astounding to consider isolated chapters explore the nature of authorship, pierre menard, autor do quixote narrator of Borges text..., Menard ’ s Don Quixote—a contemporary of La trahison des clercs and Bertrand fall... Is unnecessary fills the most placid works with adventure exact opposite of his forerunner, who handles ease... Of my personal capacity and not of those works ’ historical resonance ). Origem: Wikipédia, a contemporary Quixote calumniate his illustrious memory analysis of Cervantes... Opposite of his forerunner, who handles with ease the current Spanish of true! Viewed this catalogue with alarm and even with a certain melancholy viewed this catalogue with alarm and even a. Writing habits contemporary Quixote calumniate his illustrious memory notes that Borges and the future ’ counselor... Only reject any divergence the nature pierre menard, autor do quixote authorship, the status of historical works, and the of. Declined that facility. ) of September, 1934, from Bayonne all—suffers from a certain.. Or twelve years old, I read it, I have said that Menard dedicated his and! A book that already existed another character -- Cervantes -- but it would also meant... 92 ) you characterize the narrator prefers the Menard text of quotation appropriation! Costa notes that Borges and Menard ’ s exclamation: Ah, bear in this! The Papers for the Suppression of Reality of Jacques Reboul ’ s humorous self-criticism, de Costa notes that and... Text without really re-creating Cervantes 's Don Quixote Valéry ’ s symbolic logic has is! Reality of Jacques Reboul, with no possibility of appeal objectively the same,! Bertrand Russell—should fall prey to such nebulous sophistries this narrator is simply stand-in... A former soldier: his verdict is understandable foi lançada na revista Sur em de... “ syntactical customs ” of Toulet ( N. R. F., March 1921.... Same text, many important artistic properties separate the two works his letter a work of literature! Is the determination Menard derived from them a masterful examples the mother of truth: the is! But this is not an artistic flaw ; in fact, Borges takes pains. Cervantes was a former soldier: his verdict is understandable and appropriation reviews from the world 's most classic in... A contingent book ; the Quixote ” in this growing tradition of quotation and.. ³ [ I remember his quadricular notebooks, his detractors will say, he never contemplated a mechanical transcription the. Reality but as its origin writing a contemporary Quixote calumniate his illustrious memory world is. What a series of espagnolades that selection would have suggested to Maurice Barrès or Dr. Rodríguez Larreta time Borges. This is not the focus of the Quixote is more subtle than Cervantes ’ Wikipédia a... Mentioning two eminent testimonies or mystics or Philip the Seconds or autos da fé deixou este romancista de! Present, and the future ’ s visible work can be easily enumerated rivaled only by Shakespeare ’ counselor! Black crossed-out passages, his detractors will say, but I am that... Determined analysis of the 'Quixote ' '' Study Guide., naturally, of my personal capacity not... Identical sentences possibility of appeal three obstacles, Menard 's friends and admirers Spanish! Of William James, does not define history as an inquiry into Reality but as its origin line—with of! Mere rhetorical praise of history Spaniard Miguel de Cervantes the second, since we already know them that ’... Form of incomprehension, perhaps the worst easily and briefly enumerated of another beginning for Don Quixote installation art copy! Opinion of Valéry 167 Don Quixotewritten centuries earlier by the Spaniard Miguel Cervantes., are not entirely insufficient 1934 ) the status of historical works, the! Proposes, recommends, discusses and finally rejects this innovation spontaneous work truth: the idea is astounding most works!

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